Definition of computer terms beginning with the letter A 


Microsoft's technology to install programs over the Internet that add additional features to your browser (the program you are surfing the Internet with). This technique is sometimes hijacked by spyware writers.

Ad hoc

"Ad Hoc" mode is a mode of operation that allows computers connected directly to a Wi-Fi network card to be connected directly, without the use of third-party hardware such as an Access Point (AP).

Address Spoofing

Malicious act of deliberately using the address of another system instead of his own.


Form of spyware. An adware is a software that displays on your computer all kinds of advertisements, usually in the form of a pop-up, that is to say a small window opening unexpectedly and containing an advertisement. This advertisement should not be confused with advertising that you see often when you visit a website.


Automated information system. This term refers to all equipment (hardware, software, or "firmware") that enables the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, control, display, transmission, or reception of data.


Message describing a circumstance relating to network security. Alerts often come from active monitoring systems on the network.


A procedure, formula, or list of instructions that can be used to complete a task or solve a problem. In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm usually represents a procedure used to solve a recurring problem.

Cryptographic algorithm

A method used to transform plain text into an unreadable and unintelligible form. A cryptogram is text that has been encoded in this unreadable format. This method often involves the use of a mathematical formula to encrypt the plaintext in cryptogram and a key to decrypt the cryptogram.


An individual who wants to become a Cracker or Hacker whose knowledge of computer systems is insufficient. In general, most of the time they are young teens using easy-to-use programs from the Internet.


Security software for detecting and disabling or removing rootkits.


Computer program that protects your computer against spyware.


Computer program that protects your computer against viruses.


Antispam system where someone who sends an e-mail for the first time to the user of this system must first demonstrate that he is not a spammer, via a simple operation. Only then can he send a message to the user of the challenge response system.


The Address Resolution Protocol is a protocol that translates a network layer protocol address (typically an IP address) into an Ethernet address (typically a MAC address), or even any hardware. link layer.


System for automatically evaluating a security incident, monitoring network traffic and collecting information about network elements where unauthorized activity is detected.


Automatic management of security. Term for all security services that provide an effective level of protection for the physical environment, the software environment, and any kind of data.
Vulnerability analysis of an automated information system that consists of monitoring and inspecting the system. Its purpose is to help the administrator to secure it as much as possible.


Asynchronous transfer mode. A method of dynamically distributing bandwidth using fixed-size packets called cells. The term "fast packet switching" is also used to refer to ATM technology. (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

Authentication Header

Header identification. When exchanging data between two computers, this is the field that follows the IP header in an IP datagram and verifies the source and its integrity.


The purpose of authentication is to verify the identity that an entity claims.

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